Under the Nazis, a Vital Question with Arbitrary Answers

"Who is a Citizen?"  Article clipped from the Kölnische Zeitung (Cologne Daily) of November 15, 1935.  The article is the first publication of the implementing regulations for the Nuremberg laws depriving German "Jews" of their citizenship.

“Who is a Citizen?” Article clipped from the Kölnische Zeitung (Cologne Daily) of November 15, 1935. The article is the first publication of the implementing regulations for the Nuremberg laws, which stripped German Jews of their citizenship. On the lower right is an ad for razor blades.    (Click on image for a high resolution view.)

 

Growing up, my father had no reason to think of himself as Jewish.  He was baptized and confirmed in a Protestant church, his father was baptized and confirmed in a Protestant church and his father’s parents were married in a Protestant church in 1865.  My father’s mother had been born into a Jewish family but converted to Protestant when she was a teenager.    By the time my father was grown, his family lived an entirely secular life.  They rarely if ever attended church, though they celebrated the holidays of the Christian calendar.

Several years ago, I found a newspaper clipping pertaining to the antisemitic Nuremberg laws among the papers of my grandfather, Rudolf Höber.  Rudolf came to Philadelphia from Nazi Germany in 1933 as a professor at the University of Pennsylvania.  Two years later,  my father, Johannes, sent Rudolf this clipping from Germany.  The article, captioned “Who is a Citizen?”  was clipped from the Kölnische Zeitung (Cologne Daily) of November 15, 1935. The article is the first publication of the implementing regulations for the Nuremberg laws, which stripped German Jews of their citizenship. When Rudolf and his wife Josephine had left Germany, Johannes had stayed behind in Düsseldorf with my mother and sister.  In the letter my father asked his father, Rudolf, for information about Rudolf’s father, Anselm.  Was there any possibility that Grandfather Anselm, who died before Johannes was born, had Jewish origins that could have an impact on Johannes?

Letter from Johannes Höber in Düsseldorf to his father, Rudolf, in Philadelphia, November 18, 1935.  Johannes asks his father about his grandfather Anselm's Jewish origins.

Letter from Johannes Höber in Düsseldorf to his father, Rudolf, in Philadelphia, November 18, 1935. Johannes asks his father about his grandfather Anselm’s Jewish origins.

My father’s status as a Christian or as a nonbeliever was irrelevant to Adolf Hitler and the National Socialists.  The Nazis considered Jewishness a “race,” an inheritable genetic trait separate and apart from the  religion.  Their laws defined a person as “Jewish” if he or she had three grandparents who  came from Jewish families.  Under that definition, hundreds of thousands of Germans who regarded themselves as Christians or nonbelievers were brutally persecuted by the Nazis as “Jews.”  Individuals of mixed Jewish and non-Jewish ancestry were sometimes subject to less harsh treatment, but the administration of this purported legal structure was capricious– a bureaucrat’s guess at interpreting the code could mean the difference between life and death. Many scholars of the Nazi period today put the term “Jewish” in quotation marks when writing about individuals subject to these codes in order to distinguish between those defined as Jewish by the Nazis  and those who used other criteria to identify themselves.

Anselm Hoeber (1832-1899) and Elise Koehlau Hoeber (1843-1920) around the time of their marriage in 1865.  A century after he was born, the question of whether Anselm's parents were Jewish would have major implications for his grandchildren and great grandchildren.

My great grandparents, Anselm Höber (1832-1899) and Elise Köhlau Höber (1843-1920), around the time of their marriage in 1865. A century after Anselm was born, the question of whether his parents were Jewish would have major implications for his grandchildren and great grandchildren.

I became aware of all this only years after my father died.  My parents were refugees from Hitler’s Germany and I understood them to have left because it was impossible for them, as Social Democrats, to live under Hitler’s inhuman regime.   This letter and newspaper clipping show, however, that my father had also faced danger from the Nazis because of his grandfather’s Jewish ancestry.  In my father’s letter to his father, he asked for information about Anselm.  Under the crazy calculus of the Nuremberg laws, the birth certificate of the grandfather my father never knew might have been of crucial significance for his own future.

My grandfather’s response to my father was not among the papers that my family was able to preserve.  My father probably left it behind in Germany when he came to the United States three years later.  Suffice it to say that my father continued to live the secular life he always had and managed to avoid any situation in which the question of his grandfather’s Jewish birth might arise. He was thus able to evade the brutal consequences of being deemed a Jew in Nazi Germany.  Readers of the posts on this website may recognize that I have subsequently discovered a great deal about my family’s Jewish origins.  Much of that would have come as a complete surprise to my father.

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